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Gambling addiction

In a spin: an insight into gambling addiction

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Gambling addiction magazine articles

Postby Kizragore В» 18.06.2019

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Over the past several decades, and particularly during the last 10 to 15 years, there has been a rapid increase in the accessibility of legalized gambling in the United States and other parts of the world.

Few studies have systematically explored the relationships between patterns of gambling and health status. Existing data support the notion that some gambling behaviors, particularly problem and pathological gambling, are associated with nongambling health problems.

The purpose of this article is to provide a perspective on the relationship between gambling behaviors and substance use disorders, review the data regarding health associations and screening and treatment options for problem and pathological gambling, and suggest a role for generalist physicians in assessing problem and pathological gambling.

A rationale for conceptualization of pathological gambling as an addictive disorder and a model proposing stress as a possible mediating factor in the relationship between gambling and health status are presented. More research is needed to investigate directly the biological and health correlates associated with specific types of gambling behaviors and to define the role for generalist physicians in the prevention and treatment of problem and pathological gambling.

A growing role exists for the evaluation within primary care settings of patients for addictive disorders. The relative importance of evaluating patients' gambling behaviors in a general medical setting is in part dependent on the associated health risks and benefits.

In this article, we discuss the rationale for viewing pathological gambling as an addiction and review the data on the relationship between gambling behaviors and health, including screening for and treatment of problem and pathological gambling. We suggest basic current recommendations for generalist physicians for identification of individuals with problem or pathological gambling, and also suggest interventions that can be used to assist these individuals and their families.

We conclude that more research is needed to determine the extent to which and manners in which routine questioning of gambling behaviors in general medical settings may be warranted.

Gambling can be defined as placing something of value at risk in the hopes of gaining something of greater value. Traditional forms of gambling include wagering in casinos and on lotteries, horse and dog racing, card games, and sporting events. While the majority of people gamble, a minority meet the criteria for a gambling disorder. Pathological gambling Table 1 represents the most severe pattern of excessive or destructive gambling behavior and is the only gambling-related disorder for which there exist formal diagnostic criteria in the current formulation of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association DSM-IV-TR.

Copyright American Psychiatric Association. Rates of gambling participation and problem and pathological gambling have been increasing with the recent increase in availability of legalized gambling options. Two prominent, non—mutually exclusive conceptualizations of pathological gambling classify the disorder as an impulse control disorder lying along an obsessive-compulsive spectrum or like an addiction to a drug.

Beginning with DSM-III-R, there has been a shift in the definition of essential features of substance use disorders, with a greater emphasis on lack of control and a lesser emphasis on tolerance or physical dependence. As with substance use behaviors, there exists a spectrum of gambling-related behaviors ranging from abstinence to recreational gambling to problem gambling similar to substance abuse to pathological gambling similar to substance dependence.

Originally described for alcohol dependence 30 and more recently for cocaine and other forms of drug dependence, 31 , 32 telescoping refers to the phenomenon that women in general begin using substances later in life, but once beginning, progress to dependence more rapidly.

Studies of callers to a gambling helpline 33 and individuals in treatment for gambling problems 34 both find results consistent with the applicability of the telescoping phenomenon to individuals with gambling disorders. Analogously, typologies used to describe individuals with alcohol dependence e.

High rates of comorbidity have been described between substance use and gambling disorders. Data from a survey of 2, adults in Ontario 44 and the St. Louis ECA Study 11 also demonstrate a strong association between alcohol use and gambling. For example, in the ECA study, problem gamblers, as compared with nongamblers, were found to have elevated odds ratios for alcohol use 7. In addition, elevated rates of nicotine use 2. For example, more severe adverse measures of well-being e.

In addition to genetic commonalities, similar neural systems have been identified as contributing to drug- and gambling-related behaviors. Studies using a spinner wheel with various outcomes were used to examine neural activities underlying the expectancy and experiencing of monetary rewards in humans, and activations were observed in the ventral tegmental area and its projection sites including the nucleus accumbens , regions previously identified as being activated in cocaine-dependent subjects following administration of cocaine.

The role of the primary care physician in caring for patients with substance use disorders has expanded due to an increased recognition of the medical basis and deleterious effects of addictive disorders, the development of effective and efficient methods for screening, the identification of promising new techniques for treatment, and the potential of screening and brief intervention to reduce substance use problems.

It has been proposed that substance use disorders are chronic medical illnesses and that treatment outcomes are similar to those in other chronic medical conditions, such as diabetes, asthma, and hypertension. To evaluate this viewpoint, we conducted a review of the literature describing: 1 the relationship between gambling and health; 2 screening for problem and pathological gambling; and 3 treatment of problem and pathological gambling.

Potential articles were examined to determine if they met the following eligibility criteria: 1 were published in peer-reviewed journals between and ; 2 were written in English and involved humans, 3 discussed the health effects of gambling, 4 discussed screening strategies for problem or pathological gambling, and 5 discussed treatments for problem or pathological gambling. In an effort to minimize the impact of publication bias, abstracts were reviewed from past-year gambling, psychiatry, and addiction scientific conferences e.

All eligible citations were appraised using a standardized process to identify those related to screening, treatment, and health status. The initial medline search yielded citations. Citations that were listed as addresses, bibliographies, biographies, classical articles, dictionaries, directories, duplicate publications, editorials, festschrifts, historical articles, interviews, lectures, legal cases, letters, news, periodical indices, published errata, or retracted publications were excluded, leaving citations.

All eligible citations were appraised by 2 co-authors MNP and DAF to identify those related to health status, screening, and treatment, and publications were selected for further review. Increased rates of mental health disorders have been reported in problem and pathological gamblers. Louis ECA study, problem and pathological gamblers as compared with nongamblers were reported to have elevated odds ratios for major depression 3.

In the St. Louis ECA study, recreational gamblers as compared with nongamblers were found to have an increased odds of having major depression 1.

Despite the data finding adverse mental health measures in association with gambling, it has been suggested that gambling can also have beneficial effects. However, the risks and benefits associated with gambling ventures such as older adult casino trips have not been fully investigated. Research to date has not assessed carefully the risks of specific populations such as older adults with regard to frequency of participation in specific gambling behaviors. In general, there exists a need for further research into the health consequences associated with frequencies of participation in specific forms of gambling, particularly those forms in which large proportions of the population engage.

One study reported that cities with established casinos have 2-fold Atlantic City or 4-fold Las Vegas the expected rates of completed suicide for cities of similar demographic composition. The St. Research has been performed to investigate the relationship between problem and pathological gambling and general measures of social well-being. Recently, the National Opinion Research Center surveyed 2, adults and an additional adult gambling venue patrons to determine the gambling-related attitudes and behaviors of U.

For example, rates of past-year job loss were higher in both problem and pathological gamblers For example, the costs attributed to the increased divorce rates were calculated as the associated legal fee estimates and did not take into account impact on spouse, children, and others affected through the divorce.

Despite the widespread prevalence of gambling, systematic studies have not yet investigated directly over time the beneficial and detrimental effects associated with different levels of gambling behaviors. Casino gambling is a widespread activity.

One investigation found high rates of second-hand smoke exposure in nonsmoking casino employees. However, given that the use of on-site automated external defibrillators in casinos was found to enhance survival rates following cardiac arrest, 71 the data suggest routine use of these devices at casinos should be considered.

A recent study suggests a biological mechanism for cardiac arrests in casinos, one due to physiological changes produced by sustained stress during gambling. Further studies are warranted to investigate directly the relationship between stress and specific physical and mental health problems in different populations of gamblers. Although unstructured studies suggest comparable outcomes for gambling and substance use treatment programs, 79 few controlled trials have been performed to identify safe and effective treatments for pathological gambling.

Structured behavioral therapies for the treatment of pathological gambling are beginning to be examined. Presently, information regarding professional treatment options e.

There do not exist currently any medications that have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of pathological gambling. Over the past several years, small- to moderate-sized, randomized, short-term, placebo-controlled, and, with the exception of one study, flexible-dosing clinical trials have been performed to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of specific pharmacotherapies in the treatment of pathological gambling Table 2.

With regard to pharmacological treatments, several important observations deserve mention. First, as with other treatment trials with other subject groups, a placebo effect has been observed, highlighting the importance of monitoring for gambling-related thoughts and behaviors over time following treatment initiation and limiting the interpretation of open-label studies.

Third, the doses of naltrexone were higher than those used to treat alcohol or opiate dependence and, in conjunction with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, were found to be associated with high rates of liver function test abnormalities. Although the initial results of the short-term, randomized, placebo-controlled drug treatment trials with SSRIs, naltrexone, and lithium appear promising, more data, particularly from large-scale, randomized, placebo-controlled, prospective studies, are needed to determine more precisely the utility of specific drugs in the treatment of pathological gambling.

Relatively few studies have surveyed primary care physicians and other health care affiliates to examine their attitudes, behaviors, and perceived needs in the area of gambling disorders. Although relatively few studies have investigated problem and pathological gambling in primary care settings, 5 those that have done so report relatively high rates e.

However, more research in family and internal medicine settings is warranted to investigate the direct clinical benefit of such interventions.

Although it appears premature to develop guidelines regarding the precise role for generalist physicians in prevention and treatment efforts related to problem and pathological gambling, it is likely that generalists will encounter individuals with gambling problems in their provision of clinical care. As such, efficient screening methods for problematic gambling behaviors would help minimize potential burden.

Identification efforts could be assisted by the availability of valid and reliable brief-screening instruments such as the CAGE for alcohol use disorders, 2 and the need for such an instrument was identified in a resource assessment study.

The EIGHT begins with a statement to help define which behaviors constitute gambling and progresses to inquire if patients have felt bad depressed or guilty about their gambling, withheld from friends or families information about the extent monetary or temporal duration of their gambling, encountered criticism about their gambling, experienced financial problems due to their gambling, or felt that they might have a problem with gambling.

Sullivan, PhD, written communication, January 23, Further studies are needed to examine the generalizability of these initial findings and determine the utility of the EIGHT in specific primary care settings.

Efforts employed by generalist physicians in the prevention and treatment of problem and pathological gambling could involve the regular assessment of patients' gambling histories, sensitive broaching of the topic of the possible existence of gambling problems with those patients suspected of engaging problematically in gambling, thoughtful motivating of individuals with gambling problems to seek treatment, and appropriate referring and monitoring of gambling-related treatment see Appendix A.

Given the high rates of comorbidity between gambling and other psychiatric disorders, screening of individuals with problem or pathological gambling for other psychiatric disorders and vice versa could help in improving diagnosis and providing better treatment recommendations. Additionally, although gambling problems are more prevalent in men than women, clinicians should be cognizant of gender-related differences; e.

Additional research is needed to better define the relationships between patterns of gambling and specific forms of health and illness and the biological processes underlying the relationships. As more information becomes available regarding efficacious, well-tolerated, empirically validated treatments for pathological gambling, the role for generalist physicians in prevention and treatment of problematic forms of gambling behaviors is likely to expand and become better defined.

We would like to thank Dr. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. J Gen Intern Med. Find articles by Marc N Potenza. Find articles by David A Fiellin. Find articles by George R Heninger. Find articles by Bruce J Rounsaville.

Find articles by Carolyn M Mazure. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Address correspondence and requests for reprints to Dr. Copyright by the Society of General Internal Medicine. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Over the past several decades, and particularly during the last 10 to 15 years, there has been a rapid increase in the accessibility of legalized gambling in the United States and other parts of the world.

Keywords: addiction, pathological gambling, treatment, prevention, substance abuse. The gambling behavior is not better accounted for by a manic episode. Open in a separate window.

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Re: gambling addiction magazine articles

Postby Vosida В» 18.06.2019

A rationale for conceptualization of pathological gambling as an addictive disorder and a model proposing stress as a possible mediating factor in link relationship between gambling and health status are presented. Indeed, psychiatrists are looking again at whether they need a new diagnosis of compulsive playing of computer games. At least nine independent studies demonstrate that problem gamblers generate anywhere from 30 to 60 percent of total link revenues.

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Re: gambling addiction magazine articles

Postby Arashibei В» 18.06.2019

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Postby Samuzil В» 18.06.2019

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Postby Yosida В» 18.06.2019

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Postby Moogumuro В» 18.06.2019

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Postby Faekree В» 18.06.2019

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Postby Tagrel В» 18.06.2019

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Postby Mashicage В» 18.06.2019

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Postby Nikozil В» 18.06.2019

Psychiatric comorbidity in pathological gambling: a critical review. Share using email. Illegal behaviors in problem gambling: analysis of data from a gambling helpline. Convicted of embezzlement, she spent almost a year in prison.

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Postby Kigataur В» 18.06.2019

We suggest basic current recommendations for generalist physicians for identification of individuals with problem or pathological gambling, and also suggest interventions that can be used to assist these individuals and their families. Video gambling machines, now permitted in more mgaazine 40 states, are the overwhelming favorite among older casino-goers, Hunter says. Gender differences in gambling progression.

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Postby Kagak В» 18.06.2019

Screening for alcohol problems in primary care: a systematic review. When the casino sued her for damages on the money she owed, Kephart countersued. Sign up for Nature Briefing. Although relatively few studies have investigated problem and pathological gambling in primary care settings, 5 those that have done so report relatively high rates e.

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Postby Zunris В» 18.06.2019

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