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Gambling definition dietary

Postby Zulmaran В» 19.01.2020

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Background: The food addiction FA model is receiving increasing interest from the scientific community. Available empirical evidence suggests that this condition may play an important role in the development and course of physical and mental health conditions such as obesity, eating disorders, and other addictive behaviors.

Results: Point prevalence for FA diagnosis was 9. A higher ratio of FA was found in women Lower FA prevalence was associated with older age. Conclusion: The co-occurrence of FA in treatment-seeking GD patients is related to poorer emotional and psychological states.

GD treatment interventions and related behavioral addictions should consider potential associations with problematic eating behavior and aim to include techniques that aid patients in better managing this behavior. Scientific research on food addiction FA is still in its nascent stages and currently, no consensus exists regarding a precise operational definition of FA, although this term is commonly used in areas such as obesity, eating disorders, and behavioral addictions.

Systematic clinical and translational studies are scarce in the literature and evidence for a substance-related addiction to the specific nutrients found in foods is poor Ziauddeen and Fletcher, ; Meule and Gearhardt, ; Long et al. Recent research supports the notion that hyper-palatable foods may have addictive potential in some individuals because the increased potency of certain nutrients Meule, and palliative properties may provide a form of self-medication Fortuna, or natural reward Hoch et al.

Comprehensive reviews on studies in human and animal samples have also recognized that problematic eating behavior including FA constitutes a multifactorial condition that can involve a combination of metabolic, genetic, environmental, psychological, and behavioral factors, and that eating can be regulated by factors unrelated to metabolic control, such as stress and emotions Macht, ; Hildebrandt and Greif, ; Di Segni et al.

Other results obtained in animal and human research within the context of the effects of food intake on brain reward systems have revealed that palatable foods can mimic the neurophysiological and behavioral effects of addictive drugs Albayrak et al. Alterations in neurotransmission as a consequence of the perpetual intake of highly palatable foods have also been reported in both animal models and individuals with excess weight Baik, ; Mietlicki-Baase et al.

Furthermore, the anorexigenic effects of leptin also seem attenuated in FA, potentially leading to weakened food-reward Bowen et al. Finally, some reviews centered on the neurobiological basis of FA and binge eating suggest that compulsive-addictive food intake could be considered from an evolutionary perspective, underscoring the importance of motivational systems involved in adaptive patterns of food intake Salamone and Correa, ; Davis, Other studies propose that FA may simply be a more acute form of binge eating disorder Davis, or a valid phenotype of obesity Davis et al.

A genetic overlap between non-substance- and substance-related addictions has been implied by formal genetic studies Slutske et al.

However, candidate SNPs or genes for drug addiction were not associated with food addiction Cornelis et al. Recently the first GWAS for pathological gambling was performed on cases and controls Lang et al.

Although, genome-wide significant variants were not detected, some pathway analyses were significant. Additionally, the analysis of a genetic overlap between pathological gambling and alcohol dependence revealed, by polygenic risk score analysis of the alcohol dependence dataset, a one-sided nominally significant P -value in individuals with pathological gambling.

A combined analysis of genetic data pertaining to food addiction and gambling disorder has not yet been published. Prevalence estimates for FA in developed countries vary greatly, depending on the assessment tools employed and the type of sample studied e. Epidemiological research further shows, that FA is more prevalent in women Fattore et al.

It constitutes a mental health disorder characterized by persistent and recurrent problematic gambling behavior leading to clinically significant impairment or distress.

Systematic reviews confirm commonalties between GD and other behavioral addictions including FA in terms of neural and psychological underpinnings Cenci et al. Epidemiological research outlines that worldwide prevalence for GD in adult populations has significantly increased in recent years. A recently published meta-analysis reported estimated prevalence of lifetime GD ranging from 0. Regarding comorbidity between eating disorders and gambling disorder, a study with a sample of 1, consecutive treatment-seeking eating disorder patients 1, females and males , found that the lifetime prevalence of GD was 1.

However, when considering ED subtype, GD was highly associated with binge eating disorder 5. Despite the low comorbidity between the two conditions, results radically differ when the gender is considered. The fact that ED are more common in women has resulted in an overrepresentation of this gender in the literature and many studies have opted to exclude men from their study samples for the sake of homogeneity.

Therefore, awareness of comorbidity between these two conditions is low. However, GD and FA phenotypes share many common features. The objectives of this study were therefore: a to screen for the epidemiological occurrence of FA in a clinical sample of treatment-seeking patients who meet DSM-5 criteria for GD; b to assess whether GD patients with FA exhibit more severe gambling disorder severity, more maladaptive personality profiles, and greater general psychopathology, when compared to GD patients without FA; c to obtain predictive models of FA symptoms in patients with GD; and d to conduct a path analysis to explore the underlying mechanisms of GD and FA severity while considering patients' sex, age, and personality profile.

Bellvitge University Hospital is a public hospital certified as a tertiary care center for the treatment of addictive behaviors that oversees the treatment of highly complex cases. The catchment area of the hospital includes over two million people in Barcelona metropolitan area. All individuals who arrived to the specialized unit were assessed by expert clinical psychologists and psychiatrists with more than 15 years of clinical experience.

Descriptive information for the total sample is included in Table 1. Most participants were male Mean age for the whole sample was The SCL is a item self-report questionnaire measured on an ordinal 3-point scale to evaluate a broad range of psychological problems and psychopathological symptoms. It is structured in nine primary symptom-dimensions: somatization, obsession-compulsion, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism.

Three global indices are also available: global severity index GSI, a measure of overall psychological distress , positive symptom distress index PSDI, a measure of the symptoms' intensity , and positive symptom total PST, which reflects the total of self-reported symptoms. The Spanish adapted version was used in this study Derogatis, Self-report to evaluate personality traits on items measured on a 5-point Likert-type scale. It is structured in seven primary personality dimensions: four temperamental factors novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, and persistence and three character dimensions self-directedness, cooperativeness, and self-transcendence.

Cronbach's alpha in the sample of this work was in the range moderate to excellent see Table 3. Self-report item screening questionnaire that discriminates between probable pathological, problem and non-problem gamblers. This instrument has been modified for eating behaviors and obtains two scores: a a quantitative dimensional score obtained as the sum of DSM-IV addictive symptoms raw scores ranging from 0 to 7 ; and b a screening of FA diagnosis. The validation of the English version showed adequate internal consistency, good convergent, and incremental validity in predicting binge eating Gearhardt et al.

The Spanish version of the scale has also reported good psychometrical properties in Spanish-speaking samples with eating disorders Granero et al. The present study was carried out in accordance with the latest version of the Declaration of Helsinki.

The University Hospital of Bellvitge Ethics Committee of Clinical Research approved the study, and signed informed consent was obtained from all participants. Experienced psychologists and psychiatrists conducted two face-to-face clinical interviews, before and after the evaluation, in order to obtain clinical information that allows for an accurate diagnosis and that lets the clinicians choose the most appropriate treatment.

Statistical analysis was carried out with Stata Bonferroni-Simes correction controlled the inflation in Type-I error due to multiple statistical comparisons Simes, Secondly, partial correlations also adjusted for the covariates sex and age estimated the association between FA severity dimensional YFAS raw scores and clinical measures related to gambling, general psychopathology, and personality.

Thirdly, step-wise regressions were used to estimate the best predictive models for the FA measure. Linear regression was used for the criterion YFAS raw total score, and adjusted- R 2 measured the global predictive capacity of the final model.

For the logistic model, Hosmer—Lemeshow test valued the goodness-of-fit of the final regression, Nagelkerke's R 2 measured global predictive capacity and the area under the ROC curve AUC valued discriminative capacity. Modeling was done in two steps-blocks: the first block included and fixed the variables patients' sex and age, and the second block added and automatically selected the best predictors between the personality traits scores TCI-R scales.

Finally, Structural Equation Modeling SEM was conducted to test the potential underlying mechanism through pathway analysis between patients' sex and age, personality traits, FA severity, and gambling related measures. The global predictive capacity of the model was measured with the Coefficient of Determination CD.

The frequency distributions of Table 2 are tabulated for the total sample and for the subsample of patients who were given a FA diagnosis. Considering the whole GD sample, the prevalence of patients with FA diagnosis was 9. Stratifying for the patients' sex, this prevalence was significantly higher for women Mean FA severity scores, measured through the dimensional YFAS raw total scores, also differed between genders being higher for women than for men: 3.

Persistent desire was the least relevant criterion to differentiate between groups. Table 1 shows the comparison for the main socio demographic variables of the study. Statistical differences between diagnostic subtypes also emerged for tobacco use higher prevalence in the only-GD group; No differences emerged between the two groups for the age of onset and duration of gambling problems, the individuals' origin Spanish nationals vs.

The presence of high FA scores was statistically and clinically related to worse psychopathological states higher means in all the SCLR scales , higher mean scores in the personality traits harm avoidance and self-transcendence, and lower means on the cooperativeness and self-directedness scales. The second part of Table 3 contains partial correlations also adjusted for patients' sex and age between the dimensional FA-raw-total score and clinical measures.

Regarding personality traits, FA-raw-total scores were significantly and positively associated with harm avoidance and self-transcendence and negatively correlated with self-directedness and cooperativeness. Results indicate that risk of a FA diagnosis is higher for women; patients of a younger age and those with higher scores in the personality traits harm avoidance and self-transcendence. The second model shown in Table 4 corresponds to the final multiple linear regression measuring the contribution of sex and age on the dimensional YFAS-raw-total score measuring FA severity , and the main personality predictors of this criterion.

This model indicated that FA severity was higher for women, patients of a younger age and higher scores in the personality traits harm avoidance and self-transcendence, and lower scores in cooperativeness. Figure 1 contains the pathway analysis with the main variables of the study explaining FA and GD severity. Results confirm the direct associations obtained in the previous regression models: FA severity is explained by being female, younger age, higher scores in the personality traits harm avoidance and self-transcendence, and lower scores in cooperativeness.

And in addition to these direct associations, two relevant mediation effects also emerged: a FA severity was a mediating factor in the relationships between patients' sex, age, and the three personality traits on the one hand, and global psychopathological state on the other hand SCLR GSI score ; b gambling severity SOGS-total score was a mediator between the personality traits cooperativeness and harm avoidance and psychopathological state SCLR GSI.

Other mediation effects were found for the personality traits scores: harm avoidance mediated the relationships between sex and FA severity, sex and gambling severity, and sex and psychopathological state; and self-transcendence mediated the association between sex, age, and FA severity and psychopathological state.

Goodness-of-fit was good for the final model, and the global predictive capacity was high. Figure 1. SEM for the pathways between sex, age, personality traits, food addiction, and gambling.

The prevalence of FA in the GD sample was 9. The risk of obtaining a FA diagnosis was higher for women, patients with younger age and those with higher scores in the personality traits harm avoidance and self-transcendence. Similar results were obtained regarding the FA severity; in addition to the predictors previously described this model indicated an association between low levels of cooperativeness and FA in GD patients.

Scientific literature evidences that FA is more common in women Pursey et al. Few studies have analyzed the relationship between personality traits and the presence of FA conditions Wolz et al. Personality traits commonly described in GD are high levels of novelty-seeking, low self-directedness and low cooperativeness Janiri et al. Similarly, other studies have demonstrated the relationship between temperament traits like harm avoidance and GD Nordin and Nylander, ; Moragas et al.

High levels of harm avoidance is characterized by introspective features and in GD patients, especially women, can lead to the use of gambling as a means of regulating negative affective states Ledgerwood and Petry, ; Stewart and Zack, ; Smith et al.

This is consistent with another study, conducted in eating disorder outpatients, showing that FA is strongly related to low self-directedness Wolz et al. Moreover, self-directedness is a personality feature described extensively in both GD and other behavioral addictions Granero et al. Apart from this, patients with FA were found to have higher scores in self-transcendence individuals with this personality trait tend to be unconventional, illogical, suspicious, and immature; Cloninger et al.

This finding was in agreement with those of other studies carried out in SUD patients Simmons and Havens, ; Herrero et al. In addition to the direct associations described above, our analysis has also shown a relationship between these variables sex, age, and personality traits and emotional distress measured by the SCLR.

This pathway suggests that in behavioral addictions, such as GD, there may be a differentiated phenotype of patients, especially young women, presenting addictive-like eating patterns in the context of emotion regulation problems.

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The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. Retrieved May 7, There is a partial overlap in diagnostic criteria; pathological read more are also likely to abuse alcohol and other drugs. Stata Statistical Software: Release

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Neural and psychological underpinnings of gambling disorder: a review. The Conversation Australia. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience. College Station, TX. Gambling disorder and other behavioral addictions.

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What do we dietary about relapse in pathological gambling? However, when considering ED subtype, GD was highly associated with binge eating disorder 5. Systematic clinical and translational dietafy are scarce in the literature and evidence for a substance-related addiction to the specific nutrients found in foods is poor Ziauddeen and Fletcher, ; Meule gambling Gearhardt, ; Long et al. Retrieved 3 September Definition use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

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Most treatment for click to see more gambling involves counseling, step-based programs, self-help, peer-support, medication, hambling a combination of these. Retrieved 22 September Dietary is structured in seven primary personality dimensions: four temperamental factors novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, and persistence and three character dimensions self-directedness, cooperativeness, and self-transcendence. Other studies propose that FA may definition be a more acute form of binge eating disorder Davis, or a valid phenotype of obesity Davis et al. Behavioral addictions: an overview.

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